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The Challenge of Shrimp Diseases

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Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-production sectors but the economic impact that parasites and bacterial, fungal and viral diseases have on the industry is highly significant for the many countries that rely heavily on this industry. Research into the diseases that affect penaeid shrimps that are grown in aquaculture systems is therefore vital, writes Bob Carling for TheFishSite.


Two diseases that are currently being actively in Shrimp farming are:
1. The bacterial infection, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) – also called Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS)


2. The fungal infection, hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).





AHPND
Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) is a problem of the main countries that farm shrimps – China, Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. AHPND can occur in the first 30 days after stocking shrimp into ‘grow-out’ ponds, which is why AHPND is commonly, but incorrectly, called early mortality syndrome (…

Measuring control in Aquaculture Biosecurity

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Biosecurity is the management practices that prevent non-infected, healthy animal
populations from being exposed to infectious or parasitic agents. Common biosecurity
measures include:





1. Sanitation:
                       Sanitation includes the cleaning and disinfecting of hatcheries, holding facilities, tanks, ponds, handling and vaccination equipment, etc. Cleaning must be done before disinfecting. Disinfectants include chlorine, heat, steam, formalin, and other chemical compounds. All of the chemical disinfectants are toxic, so all equipment should be rinsed well after disinfecting.

2. Vertical disease transmission:
                       Vertically transmitted diseases (from parent to offspring) can be prevented by using healthy, disease-free broodstock.

3. Egg disinfection:
                        Egg disinfection with iodine or other solutions at the time of the water hardening of eggs can reduce the incidence of disease problems of eggs and larvae.

4. Traffic:
                   …