How to control White feces disease in Shrimp Farming
During the early 2010, concerned by high shrimp selling prices, many manufacturers decided to use improved stocking densities in the pursuit of higher production levels. However, abnormally high water temperatures (>32°C) and greater feeding rates resulted in increased organic matter levels in the ponds, with the occurrence of a new pathological entity called “white feces disease”. The disease was first identified in Penaeus monodon cultivated in low salinity waters (3- 5‰), but it was far along spread throughout complete shrimp production area, where currently 99% production corresponds to Litopenaeus vannamei.
The disease happens under different soil conditions, and it results in depreciated water quality. Peak mortality rates are seen in the appearance of very low oxygen (<3.0 mg/L)/low alkalinity (<80 ppm) levels. Initial disease signs appear in both control feed trays and at water surface, where abundant floating white feces are observed.
In addition to white feces, infected shrimp show a loose exoskeleton and epibiontic protozoa infestation that causes a dark discoloration of the gills. The histopathological examination reveals hemocyte encapsulation with nodules and melanization of the hepatopancras.
White feces disease-related organisms:
Both a group of Vibrio spp. bacteria and parasitic protozoa known as gregarins have been related with the disease. The following Vibrio species have been found in the fecal analyses:
· Vibrio parahaemolyticus
· Vibrio fluvialis
· Vibrio alginolyticus
· Vibrio mimicus
Gregarins found in white feces of infected shrimp belong to the Nematopsis genus.
The first recommendation is for producers to decrease stocking densities during the hot season. This results in decreased bottom organic matter, and reduced bacterial (Vibrio spp.) proliferation. Likewise, some producers have successfully managed the disease by using appropriate probiotics containing Bacillus subtilis that block the growth of pathogenic Vibrio spp. bacteria. A treatment that has yielded good results in the control of disease-associated gregarins has been the application of 5-10 grams of garlic per kilogram of feed.
is imported and meets the highest quality standards. We have proven that our
products efficacy is real and immediate. Regular use of our products have
ensured low incidence of disease and also has improved the health of the
To safeguard the heptopancreas to control effectively and inhibit vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio sp and other gram negative bacteria are associated with EMS and other pathogenic conditions. Further it is also reduces the incidence of white gut and white feaces. This product is a feed supplement which should added on a regular basis.
All vinnbio products are imported and meets the highest quality standards. We have proven that our products efficacy is real and immediate. Regular use of vinnbio products have ensured low incidence of disease and also has improved the health of the shrimp.
Our dosage is based on the stocking density and work effectively at a wide range of pH and temperature. It requires a minimum BOD levels and basic water quality standards.
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