Probiotics and Shrimp Farming

Probiotics and Shrimp Farming : Probiotic bacterial cultures added to shrimp ponds typically are composed primarily of heterotrophic bacteria or a mixture of heterotrophic bacteria and autotrophic nitrifiers. Heterotrophic bacteria are those bacteria that primarily obtain their nutrition from organic sources. The primary source of carbon for these bacteria is carbohydrates. Nit...

Bacterial disease of Shrimp

Rickettsial Infections This infection is not recorded yet from Indian waters, systemic rickettsial infections were reported from cultured P. monodon from Malaysia and Singapore. In P. monodon, the rickettsia occurred within large cytoplasmic vacuoles where it formed-microcolonies of 19 to 33 f.lm in diameter. In heavy infections, cells with rickettsial inclusions were widespread in mesodermally and ectodermally derived tissues, but absent in endodermally derived tissues such as midgut, hepatopancreas and caeca. Experimental treatment using medicated feeds containing 1.5 to 2. 0 kg of oxytetracycline per 1000 kg  offered  was found to be successful in reducing monalities. Vibriosis Vibrio sp. were found to constitute the predominant normal microflora of the culturable species of shrimps. Due to their rich presence in the shrimp's microflora, researchers have found Vibrio sp. as frequent and opponunistic pathogen of the shrimps. The opponunistic pathogenic Vibrio sp. es

An overview of L. vannamei shrimp aquaculture

Litopenaeus vannamei   is the most commonly cultured shrimp in Latin America and Southeast Asia, representing over 90 % of total shrimp production. India with its 8,118 km of coastline and 1.24 million Ha of brackish water area is the second shrimp producer in the world, with Andhra Pradesh being India’s largest vannamei farming area. Andra Pradesh, situated on the southern coast of the country, has 974 km of coastline and 175,000 Ha of brackish water. Andhra Pradesh has gradually increased its share in total marine exports of the country, with the United States and Vietnam as the main export markets. Currently, the state’s  L. vannamei aquaculture  is facing different issues and challenges to achieve sustainability related to diseases outbreaks, lack of availability of quality seed, high feed costs, unauthorized farming, international price fluctuations, less demand in the domestic market, and others. If farmers implement Better Management Practices (BMP) and  biosecurity  in L. v


In light of the devastating disease problems currently plaguing the global  shrimp farming  industry, water exchange has apparently become a risky management option for maintaining acceptable water quality. The biosecure shrimp farming system is an evolving culture practice which provides means to achieve a higher degree of biosecurity. Biosecurity in aquaculture is the sum of all procedures in place to protect living organisms from contracting, carrying, and spreading diseases and other non-desirable health conditions, with biotherapeutic agents like probiotics. The Central Institute of Brackish water Aquaculture (CIBA) has developed a Bio secure Shrimp Farming Technology (BSFT) based on three years of study, which includes several yard experiments and two pond trials, involving investigations on utilization of bio therapeutic agents, water and sediment quality parameters in relation to modifications in culture practices. It differs from conventional farming with regard to pr

The Need For Biosecurity in Aquaculture

Disease challenge by viruses, bacteria, fungi and toxic algae presents a major threat to profitable aquaculture production. Biosecurity, in other words reducing the number of infectious organisms in the aquaculture environment, is the most effective form of protection. Biosecurity is a set of management practices, which reduce the potential for the introduction, and spread of disease-causing organisms onto and between sites. Bio-security procedures, particularly disinfection and sanitation, should be combined with selection of pathogen-free seed and strategic treatments to either eradicate or reduce these pathogens to non-infectious levels. The Neospark Biosecurity Programme has been developed over many years with leading aquaculture producers around the nation. Neospark products and procedures have proven effective in practical farm conditions against a broad spectrum of pathogens. These include persistent and difficult to destroy immunosuppressive viruses causing WSSV,