Showing posts from August, 2016

Shrimp Disease control - Aquatic Animal Disease Report

1. White Spot Disease (WSD) Pathogen : White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) Species affected :   Penaeus monodon   and   Litopenaeus vannamei   (10-85 DOC) Mortality rate : average to high, 100% in some cases within 10 d. Clinical signs : lethargic or moribund shrimps aggregated at pond surface and edges, slow to erratic swimming behavior, overall body color often reddish, minute to large (0.5-2.0 mm diameter) white inclusions embedded in the cuticle; Control measures : early harvest, strict isolation of infected ponds from movement, strengthened control of transportation, disinfection of infected ponds using Calcium hypochlorite (chlorine). 2. Yellowhead Disease (YHD) Pathogen : Yellowhead virus (YHV) Species affected :   Litopenaeus vannamei Mortality rate : could reach 100% in 2-5 days after infection. Clinical signs : Affected shrimps showed sudden increase in feeding activity and abnormal growth, then loss of appetite; aggregat

BIOCLEAN - A Vinnbio Products (Eco Balancer / Control Ammonia)

It is a formulation of beneficial pond bacteria, which has been used in aquaculture ponds. They function well in fresh, brackish or salt water. The beneficial microbes in BioClean have been selected for their ability to biodegrade complex organic compounds like proteins, fats, oils, cellulose and starch. These heterotrophic bacteria are generally considered to be organic sludge degraders. They are mostly from the genera Bacillus and are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can function with or without oxygen. Each gram of BioClean contains more than three billions of bacteria belong to different species and strains. They carry out the hydrolysis of the complex organic molecules continuously and keep  the pond water free from sludge accumulation and ammonia toxicity. Therefore, it is imperative to maintain the C:N:P ratio, mechanical aeration , Heterotrophs in BioClean use organic carbon for cell tissue formation. As a result, the rate of nitrification is


Many factors must be considered when a farmer is deciding which species of shrimp he should culture. Due to its large size and high price,  Penaeus monodon  and  P. indicus  are generally considered for farming. It has also been seen that both these species are suitable for farming in Kerala's environment. Apart from these candidate species other commercially important species such as  Metapenaeus ensis ,  M. monoceros ,  M. brevicornis ,  Penaeus semisulcatus  and  P. merguiensis  are also potential species that can be grown in India. Another potential candidate species that is flooding international market is the White leg shrimp,  Penaeus vannamei. Although the Government of India has not yet given sanctions to culture it in the country, many Asian countries have already started to culture this species. Advantages of  P. monodon It attains a large size. Shrimp with a size of 10 to 12 pieces/kg are common, and sizes of 5 to 7 pieces/kg have been grown in pon


What is Biosecurity? Biosecurity is the process of taking precautions to minimize the risk of introduction and spread of infectious organisms into or between farmed animal populations. Why is Biosecurity so important? Biosecurity is very important to aquaculture because it prevents or limits the introduction and spread of disease within or between aquatic animal production facilities and sites. Since very few effective treatments are available for most aquatic animal diseases, effective biosecurity is the key to preventing these diseases. How are infectious organisms transmitted? Disease agents that infect aquatic animals are frequently spread between aquatic organisms in the environment, or equipment used to transfer animals from one holding unit or site to another. Some diseases can also be spread directly through the water by animals releasing the infectious agent or by sick animals dying. Known sources of aquatic animal infections include contaminated feed, equip


Pond Aquaculture Management and Development (POND) Integrated aquaculture management for shrimp farming has helped to counter the early boom and bust experienced in shrimp farming and led to efficiency gains in the sector. Management approaches have evolved through research outcomes as well as trial and error. Shrimp farm management aims to control the processes in the pond during the grow-out cycle, through onsite monitoring of key indicators such as dissolved oxygen (DO), Secchi disk depth and feed requirements through the use of trays. Management strategies for shrimp farming are largely reactive, using measurable quantities to trigger response actions. Shrimps farms can be regulated through improved external forcing and/or reduced internal loading, e.g. utilizing appropriate aeration and water exchange, adjusting feeding requirements throughout the culture cycle or experimenting with different stocking densities. There is an increasing need to understand the n